Happy new year everyone. Today is Rosh Hashanah, which occurs on the first and second days of the Tishri, the first month of the Jewish Calendar year. In Hebrew, Rosh Hashanah means, literally, “head of the year” or “first of the year.” On Rosh Hashanah it is customary to greet one another with blessings and good wishes for a good year or “L’Shanah Tovah” – then we eat!
Last week’s short week was nice, but I think the return to the regular traffic pattern in DC made it seem like we went a full 5 days last week. It was brutal. Anyway, this week we see the return to DC of my friend and colleague Scott Segal from his European vacation and there was no national lampooning on this trip. We all look forward to hearing the stories and seeing the pictures from what sounds like it was a life-altering experience.
I hope you waited out the 3-hour rain delay to stay with the US Open Men’s Final where Novak Djokovic beat Roger Federer in four sets. It was a true battle of champions and some tremendous tennis. It was Djokovic’s third major of the year (Australia/Wimbledon).
In Congress this week, most focus in on the Animas River spill. The House Resources and Oversight Committees will hold a joint hearing Thursday on the Gold King Mine featuring Interior Secretary Sally Jewell and EPA’s Gina McCarthy, while Wednesday Senate Indian Affairs and Senate Environment also host McCarthy. And after last week’s subcommittee work, the House Energy & Commerce Committee takes up oil exports legislation on Thursday along with a markup of a broader energy package.
Off the Hill, the most interesting event may be Wednesday when our friend our friend Karen Harbert of the Chamber’s Energy Institute will host a luncheon with BHP CEO Andrew MacKenzie, who may be able to offer interesting insights with a new PM in Australia. Other great event include our friend Monica Trauzzi speaking the CHP conference at the National Press Club today. Growth Energy is talking about ethanol tomorrow with Gina McCarthy and Tom Vilsack, while my friends Jean Chemnick and Hannah Northey join me for a media panel at the CIBO DC meeting. Also Wednesday morning National Journal hosts a conference on crude exports with Sens. Hoeven, Heidkamp and Markey and OurEnergyPolicy will be hosting an ozone forum with NAM’s Ross Eisenberg and NRDC’s John Walke that is moderated by Bloomberg’s Mark Drajem.
As the for the out of town scoreboard this week, today through Wednesday, Anaheim hosts the Solar Power International conference which will feature VP Joe Biden and mid-week, we’re all in Philly with the Marcellus Shale Coalition’s big annual event featuring a speech by our friend and partner Rudy Giuliani and the second Republican President debate heads to the Reagan Library in Simi Valley.
There is a lot going on so please don’t hesitate to call.
IN THE NEWS
SoCo Acquires 2nd Wind Project – Southern Company announced another agreement to acquire its second wind project: the 151-MW Grant Wind facility in Oklahoma from Apex Clean Energy. In March, Southern Power announced an agreement to acquire the 299-MW Kay Wind facility in Oklahoma, also from Apex Clean Energy – which is expected to close in the fourth quarter of 2015. Southern Power also recently announced the acquisition of a controlling interest in two California facilities: the 300-MW Desert Stateline facility from First Solar Inc. and the 200-MW Tranquility facility from Recurrent Energy, a subsidiary of Canadian Solar Inc. With the addition of the three facilities, Southern Power’s renewable ownership is expected to reach more than 1,600 MW with 21 solar, wind and biomass facilities either announced, acquired or under construction. Across its system, Southern Company has added or announced more than 3,400 MW of renewable generation since 2012.
Another New DOE Air Conditioning Rule Rolls Out – The Energy Department today unveiled more new energy efficiency standards for air conditioners and heat pump systems for motels, hotels, condominium buildings and hospitals. The final rule adopts the industry standards for larger “single package vertical” (SPV) units but tightens those for smaller systems. DOE will require SPV air conditioners and heat pumps with less than 65,000 British thermal units per hour of cooling capacity to meet the new standards in four years, according to the rule. Larger systems will need to comply with the new standards in October or a year from October, as many already follow the industry standards. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) adopted new standards for SPVs in October 2013. AHRI is very concerned about the rule, saying member companies are reviewing the rule and will decide what, if any, action to take within the 60-day time period following publication in the Federal Register.
Chamber Fuzzy Math Blog Continues – The Chamber’s Energy Institute has released its second installment of analysis on EPA’s final rule. In the first of the series, they examined the changes EPA made to its Base Case, or business as usual, power sector forecast in support of its Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) for the Clean Power Plan Final Rule compared the Base Case it issued a few short months ago in support of its RIA for the Proposed Rule. In the most recent post, they take that analysis a bit further and take a closer look at how EPA treats electricity generation from coal and renewables. In its Proposed Rule, EPA used Integrated Planning Models showed a 12% output for coal plants in 2030.
The vast majority of this lost coal output—90% in fact—is offset in EPA’s model by increased output from renewable sources, most notable non-hydro renewables. Essentially, EPA is forecasting an almost one-for-one replacement of renewable generation for coal-fired generation, or a new estimate of renewables generation in 2030 of 30%. All told, according to EPA, in 2030 we will have made it halfway to the administration’s goal without lifting a finger. See the details here.
INGAA to Launch Education Campaign – While protesters are busy fasting at FERC hoping it won’t issue anymore fossil fuel infrastructure permits (good luck with that), our friends at INGAA, an industry association of pipeline builders, will launch a campaign on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to help educate Americans about the benefits of natural gas and the pipelines that move gas to customers. INGAA’s Don Santa: “America’s Energy Link will provide valuable information about pipelines and natural gas, including materials about safety and the environment. We hope to educate Americans about the tangible benefits natural gas brings to their quality of life every day. America’s Energy Link, also will serve as a springboard for those who want to learn more about natural gas pipelines and be part of the conversation going forward.“
ON THE SCHEDULE THIS WEEK
Trauzzi to Address CHP Conference – The Combined Heat and Power Assn (CHP) will hold its 2015 Annual Meeting today and tomorrow at the National Press Club in Washington DC. The theme of this year’s conference is CHP: Providing Resilience and Security in an Uncertain Energy World. With the changing landscape of energy generation in the U.S. and the strain on an aging electric grid, energy solutions that are not only cost effective and efficient–but most importantly resilient–are needed to secure our energy future. This conference will highlight the ways in which combined heat and power is the best answer for our resilient energy needs while also providing numerous other benefits. The conference will feature a number of new elements including CHP Association’s inaugural Solution Summit aimed at fostering meaningful discussion among attendees on ways to increase CHP deployment. In addition, there will be a trade show to highlight companies and organizations working in the industry, and a full day conference that will explore the conference theme of resilience. E&E TV’s Monica Trauzzi will be the keynote speaker.
Biden to Address Large Solar Conference – Solar Power International will be held today through Wednesday in Anaheim, CA at the convention center. Among the speakers will be Vice President Joe Biden who will address the general assembly on Wednesday.
WCEE Forum to Look at Enviros View of NatGas Fracturing – Today at Noon, the Women’s Council on Energy & the Environment (WCEE) launches its Lunch & Learn Series, which will aim to bring you perspectives from all sides of this issue. The first will be an environmental viewpoint from NRDC and EPA on hydraulic fracturing. Speakers will include NRDC’s Sharon Buccino and EPA’s Caroline Ridley. I suspect a few of our good natural gas WCEE members may have some tough questions.
House Resources Oil/Gas Field hearing Set for NOLA –Tomorrow morning in New Orleans, The House Resources Committee will host a field hearing at the Louisiana Supreme Court. This hearing will focus on the current state of offshore oil and gas activity in the Gulf of Mexico, what measures, if any, the federal government is taking to manage outer Continental Shelf resources to maintain our nation’s competitive advantage, and how federal policy decisions impact current and future oil and natural gas development. Witnesses will include Sens. Cassidy and Vitter, along with other local oil and gas experts and academics.
CIBO to Hold Annual DC Meeting – The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners will be meeting in Washington tomorrow ahead of their October annual meeting. The agenda includes GHG discussions, along with rule on methane, coal ash, and WOTUS.
McCarthy, Vilsack Hit Ethanol Forum – Growth Energy is hosting Its annual ethanol advocacy conference tomorrow at the Hyatt Regency, Capitol Hill. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack will address the Conference in Washington, D.C. in the morning followed by an industry press conference with Growth Energy CEO Tom Buis and Growth Energy Board of Directors Co-Chair, Jeff Broin. Later that afternoon, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will also address the Growth Energy conference.
NJ to Host Lawmakers on Crude Exports – Tomorrow at 8:00 a.m., National Journal will hold a forum with Democratic and Republican lawmakers to explore the building momentum around crude oil exports. NJ will pose questions like will lifting the ban make America more competitive or will it increase greenhouse gases by promoting oil exploration? Will it raise energy prices, even though recent studies predict a drop in fuel prices as a result of more American oil in the market? Speakers will include Sens. Heidi Heitkamp, John Hoeven and Ed Markey.
Atlantic Council to Look at Iran, NatGas – Tomorrow at Noon, the Atlantic Council will host a panel discussion on the future of Iranian energy, particularly natural gas, in a post-sanctions world. The panel of Atlantic Council fellows includes Dr. Sara Vakhshouri, President of SVB Energy International, Barbara Slavin, Washington Correspondent for Al-Monitor, and Dr. Brenda Shaffer, Visiting Researcher and Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University. Yeganeh Torbati of Reuters will moderate the interactive discussion on the latest insight on the Iran agreement in light of the pending US Congressional vote, Iran’s energy policy priorities in the near and medium term, particularly as it relates to natural gas, the outlook for foreign investment in Iran’s energy sector and the geopolitical implications of Iranian natural gas development.
Giuliani to Address Shale Insight – The 2015 Shale Insight Conference will be held in Philadelphia Wednesday and Thursday. Over the past five years, the conference has built a reputation for strong programmatic content, including an impressive speaker roster of nearly 100 industry experts, political figures and concurrent technical and public affairs session panelists who share their expertise. Attendees at the 2015 conference will hear from featured presenters, including: Hon. Rudolph W. Giuliani, Partner at Bracewell & Giuliani LLP and former mayor of New York City, as well as Robert Bryce, journalist, author and Senior Fellow at the Manhattan Institute.
Energy Breakfast to Discuss Energy Techs – On Wednesday morning, ICF will host the heads of the two premier U.S. electricity and energy technology groups to discuss how new energy technologies and innovations are quickly reshaping the way we produce, transport, and utilize energy. We have seen dramatic price reductions and increases in efficiency in solar, wind, and energy storage. But there are equally stunning changes taking place in areas such as information technology, environmental controls, appliances, system monitoring, and resiliency that are changing the energy landscape. To be prepared for this technology tsunami, every facet of the energy industry—generators, fuel companies, transmission firms, regulators, and customers—needs to understand their impact and the new options they allow and changes they will create. Speakers will include ARPA-E Director Ellen Williams and EPRI CEO Michael Howard.
Forum to Look at Ozone Rule – On Wednesday at 8:30 a.m., Our Energy Policy is holding an expert panel discussion at the National Press Club on the impacts of EPA’s proposed new standards for ground level ozone on the dynamic energy sector. EPA is expected to announce a new standard for ground level ozone, a smog-forming pollutant. Referred to by some in industry as “the most expensive regulation ever,” the controversial rule will likely reduce the existing standard from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 65 or 70 ppb. There is significant disagreement over the likely benefits, costs and impact on public health and the economy of such a change. The Panel includes our friends Ross Eisenberg of NAM, RFF’s Alan Krupnick, AFPM’s Sarah Magruder Lyle and NRDC’s John Walke. Bloomberg’s Mark Drajem will moderate.
House Resources, Oversight Look Into EPA Mine Spill – The House Resources and Oversight Committees will hold a joint hearing Wednesday on the Gold King Mine spill. Witnesses will include Interior Secretary Sally Jewell, EPA Administrator McCarthy, along with representatives of the Navajo Nation and the Southern Ute Indian Tribe.
UNFCCC Head to Address Enviro Group Webinar – On Wednesday at 10:30 a.m. , the Union of Concerned Scientists will host a webinar featuring UNFCCC executive secretary Christiana Figueres. The next international meeting on global warming is in December, but momentum is already building. President Obama recently made a bold call for action from the Arctic, Climate Week in New York begins September 21, and Pope Francis will be in Washington, DC, and New York the same week speaking about his call for global climate action. The UCS webinar will discuss more about what we should expect from this meeting, what emissions reduction commitments countries have already made, if we expect international agreement to dramatically reduce carbon emissions, and what role the United States will play.
Chamber to Host BHP CEO – The Chamber of Commerce’s Institute for 21st Century Energy and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation will hold a conversation with BHP Billiton CEO Andrew Mackenzie on Wednesday at Noon. Mackenzie will discuss the free trade outlook for global energy and resources.
Moniz to Address Accelerate Energy Summit – The Accelerate Energy Productivity 2030 Summit will be held at Arena Stage on Wednesday at Noon. The event is the culmination of a series of regional dialogues and will officially unveil a roadmap for achieving the goal of doubling U.S. energy productivity. This half-day dialogue will feature a keynote address from Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz along with panel discussions regarding driving energy productivity through federal and state policy, industrial competitiveness, smart power systems, and the built environment. Rep. Tom Reed and Jigar Shah, President & CEO of the Institute for Industrial Productivity, are the latest additions to a speaker roster of 25 industry leaders, including Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz, who will unveil a roadmap for doubling U.S. energy productivity by 2030.
EPRI, NRDC to Release Electric Transportation Report – On Thursday at 8:00 a.m. , EPRI and NRDC will release a new report that finds widespread adoption of electric transportation will curbs GHG emissions and improve air quality. The report is a comprehensive environmental assessment of electric vehicles by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that concludes that electric transportation, including non-road electrification, would lead to reductions in greenhouse gases (GHG) and improve air quality especially in densely populated urban areas. The report adds that by 2050, the electricity sector could reduce annual GHG emissions by 1700 million metric tons relative to 2015 levels by leveraging a cleaner grid, widespread electrification of light-duty vehicles, medium-duty vehicles and non-road equipment could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 540 million metric tons annually in 2050—equivalent to removing 100 million passenger cars from the road. Speakers will include EPRI’s Mark Duvall, SoCal Ed CEO Ted Craver, NRDC’s David Hawkins and EPRI CEO Mike Howard.
Mexican Energy Officials Headline North American Energy Forum – The Mexico and Canada Institutes of the Woodrow Wilson Center are hosting the Second Annual North American Energy Forum on Thursday. Over the past year, two new developments have left their mark on North America’s energy markets. The first concerns the impact of low oil prices on the region’s producers, with revenue affecting existing and future projects. Alongside the issue of price, we have seen major developments in all three North American countries. In Mexico, the first round of oil contracts is underway, with contracts awarded for exploration in shallow water in July of 2015. At the same time, we have seen major new investment plans unveiled in the electricity sector. In Canada, major infrastructure challenges and political change in the province of Alberta have altered the investment environment. In the US, the Interior Department proposal to open a stretch of the Atlantic Ocean to offshore drilling has generated a highly charged debate, and new EPA rules on emissions have been the subject of analysis and legal challenge. The objective of the forum is to provide insight and draw attention to the challenges and opportunities that these new developments have created. Featured Keynote Speakers include Mexican Under- Secretary of Energy for Hydrocarbons, Lourdes Melgar and Mexican Under-Secretary of Energy for Electricity, César Hernández Ochoa.
Brookings Hosts Electricity Book Review – On Thursday at 1:30 p.m., the Energy Security and Climate Initiative (ESCI) at Brookings will host Institute for Electricity Innovation (IEI) Executive Director and ESCI Nonresident Senior Fellow Lisa Wood for a discussion of the evolving electric power industry and future trends. Brookings Institution Trustee and former CEO of Duke Energy Jim Rogers will moderate the discussion. Wood is editor of “Thought Leaders Speak Out: The Evolving Electric Power Industry,” IEI’s collection of more than 20 essays by electric utility and technology company leaders, policymakers, and other stakeholders focused on three distinct and interrelated areas driving this transformation: the evolving grid, the evolving customer, and evolving regulation. Attendees will receive a free copy of the book.
ACCF Forum to Look at Energy Challenges – The American Council for Capital Formation will hold forum Friday at the Washington Convention Center to discuss to discuss both the challenges and the opportunities in the nation’s energy landscape along with how our nation’s energy abundance has put us in a position to export. What are the barriers preventing a stronger position of U.S. domestic energy? Do these regulatory challenges impede economic growth? What communities across the country are most impacted by higher-prices, lower wages, and anti-growth policies? And finally, how does a strong domestic energy industry help communities of color?
Forum to Look at LNG Resources – The National Capital Area Chapter of the US Association for Energy Economics is hosting a lunch Friday at Noon at Carmine’s with speaker Fred Hutchison, Executive Director of LNG Allies. Hutchinson, Executive Director of LNG Allies, will discuss the outlook for US LNG production vis-a-vis the European outlook for increased demand capacity, restructuring, and contract negotiations. Hutchison is the executive director (day-to-day manager) and founder of LNG Allies. He coordinates the team of consultants and is principal liaison with the membership on US and European LNG structure, markets, and policy.
National Drive Electric Week – This Sunday starts National Drive Electric Week on the National Mall. There will be EV owners available to answer questions while several models of plug-in cars will all be in one place, for easy comparison. Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt, Tesla Model S and more. Hear how people charge their cars daily, mostly at home.
Forum to Look at Energy Changes, Security – Next Monday , the Wilson Center will hold a global energy Forum looking at technology change and security. The international energy system is going through revolutionary changes. Oil and natural gas production is growing in the United States and elsewhere in response to new technologies. Geopolitics face several inflection points, from a turbulent Middle East to increased Russian pressure in Europe, and Chinese pressure in East Asia. Furthermore, new pathways must be developed to advance global energy security at a time of revolutionary change. The system must be more resilient, as energy trade is vulnerable to interruption, and as strategic petroleum reserves need to be modernized. Up to and beyond the next climate change conference (COP-21) in Paris, national security, energy and climate goals need to be better integrated in future policies.
Moral March on DC – Climate Advocates will descend to Washington on September 21 to talk about Climate. From September 21 to 25, there will be a series of events held across the country to call for the United States to honor its moral duty to act for climate justice. On Wednesday, September 23, the Franciscan Action Network will lead an all-night, multi-faith vigil at the Lincoln Memorial. On Thursday, September 24, the Pope will address a joint session of Congress, and there will be Jumbotrons set up at the Capitol and the National Mall for public viewing. After the address, there will be a rally on the National Mall, between 4th St. NW and 7th St. NW, with performances and speakers.
USEA to Host LNG Discussion – Next Tuesday at 10:30 a.m., the U.S. Energy Association will host a forum on the role of US LNG exports in global gas markets. Christopher J. Goncalves, Managing Director and Co-Chair of BRG’s Energy and Natural Resources Practice will look at the implications for global LNG trade and pricing.
Book to Address NatGas Roundtable – The Natural Gas Roundtable will hold its September Roundtable on next Tuesday featuring Kevin Book, Managing Director of ClearView Energy Partners. Book heads the research team at ClearView, an independent research firm that serves institutional investors and corporate strategists. Mr. Book’s primary coverage areas include oil, natural gas, coal and refined products.
RFF Forum to Look at Carbon Impact on Low Income – Resources for the Future will Host a seminar on next Tuesday at 12:45 p.m. looking at carbon pricing on low-income Households. RFF’s Roberton Williams will present an analysis of the impact of carbon pricing policies across income groups. Chad Stone of the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities will share new research on how to design and implement policy options that protect the most vulnerable households. Aparna Mathur of the American Enterprise Institute and Adele Morris of The Brookings Institution will provide comments on the two presentations, and all speakers will participate in a panel discussion on how climate policies may impact low-income households more broadly.
Papal Visit Schedule Set – The official schedule is out for the Papal visit in the United States. Pope Francis will arrive at Andrews AFB on Tuesday September 22, meet with the White House and address a Joint Session of Congress before heading to the UN on Friday. He then travels to Philadelphia before heading back to the Vatican on Sunday September 27th.
UN Climate Talks Set – Climate sidebars will be held at the UN on September 24 and 25. President Obama is expected to attend.
Holmstead, Others Experts to Discuss GHG Rule at DC Bar Event – On Thursday, September 24th at 12:30 p.m., the D.C. Bar will hold a forum in its Conference Center looking the EPA’s GHG Rule. At this brown bag, sponsored by the Air Quality Committee of the D.C. Bar Environment, a panel of experts will offer perspectives on the final rule, including state compliance options and the nature and timing of legal challenges. The panelists will be: David Doniger, Director, Climate & Clean Air Program, Natural Resources Defense Council, Lisa Heinzerling, Professor of Law at Georgetown University, and Jeff Holmstead, Partner, Bracewell & Giuliani. All three of our speakers have previously served in high-level posts at EPA and have spent most of their careers shaping carbon pollution policy.
CSIS to Look at Global NatGas Markets – The CSIS Energy and National Security Program will host Dr. Fereidun Fesharaki, Chairman and Founder of FGE, on Friday September 25th at 10:00 a.m. for a discussion of the global natural gas markets. As the low price environment persists, the debate over the impacts on gas production in the United States and globally continues. Spot prices have entered a long term lull disconnected from contract prices; European prices may remain weak for some time; and in the United States, many sellers are still planning to proceed with export projects. The LNG market turmoil will likely hit new heights in 2016 with so much additional volume in the market. How can the markets rebalance? What is needed to bring sanity to the market? David Pumphrey, Senior Associate with the CSIS Energy and National Security Program, will moderate the discussion.
Global Citizen Event Set for NYC – On September 26th in NYC’s Central Park, the Global Citizen movement will hold an event focused on taking action to address poverty, environmental and education issues. The event will feature a concert with Pearl Jam, Beyoncé, Ed Sheeran and Coldplay.
UN General Assembly – September 28th
DOE’s Solar Decathlon Set – The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon—America’s premier collegiate competition that challenges students from around the world to design, build and operate highly energy-efficient, solar-powered houses—will open October 8 in Irvine, California. Sixteen collegiate teams involving more than 2,000 students from 27 schools are deep into construction, assembling their innovative houses on or near their campuses. In less than three months, the students will transport and open those houses to the public in the Solar Decathlon village, where they’ll demonstrate just how affordable, attractive and comfortable these zero-energy homes—homes that are so efficient that a solar energy system can offset all or most of their energy consumption—have become.
Hydrogen Fuel Day Set for Oct 8 – In recognition of the benefits of fuel cell and hydrogen energy technology, industry advocates are celebrating National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day on October 8th to help raise awareness of a clean energy technology that is here now. October 8th was chosen as a reference to the of the atomic weight of Hydrogen, 1.008.
Smart Grid Conference Set – The 2nd Annual National Summit on Smart Grid & Climate Change will bring together policymakers, utilities, technology companies, and a wide variety of environmental and energy stakeholders to address the role of smart grid technologies and practices in mitigating and adapting to climate change. The Summit will establish an understanding as to how smart grid can be an essential part of any climate action planning, whether in response to government emission restrictions like EPA’s Clean Power Plan or efforts to increase resiliency to prepare for various climate change events and scenarios. Speakers will include Energy Secretary Moniz, OMB’s Ali Zaidi, Arizona Public Service SVP Jeff Guldner and NREL’s Bryan Hannegan.
GP Bush , Fox to Headline Border Energy Forum – The Border Energy Forum will be held on October 14 – 16th in San Diego, California and will feature Texas Land Commissioner George P. Bush as its Keynote Speaker. For more than 20 years, the Border Energy Forum has worked to increase regional development of clean energy projects, promote cross-border energy trade, and advance technologies and innovative solutions for sustainable resource management. Other speakers will include former Mexican President Vicente Fox.
Cato to Hold UN Climate Conference Forum – The Cato Institute will hold a day-long forum on October 30th in its Hayek Auditorium to hear distinguished climate scientists and legal experts assess the issues sure to drive the debate before, during, and after the Paris UN Climate meeting. Speakers will include
John Christy of the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Georgia Tech’s Judy Curry and Texas State Climatologist John Nielsen-Gammon on a panel about science. MIT professor and prominent climate skeptic Richard Lindzen will be the luncheon speaker. In the afternoon, there will be a legal panel featuring Peter Glaser and Andrew Grossman and a policy panel that will include Harlan Watson, Former Chief Climate Negotiator in the George W. Bush administration and Paul “Chip” Knappenberger, who is Assistant Director, Center for the Study of Science at Cato.